Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (2023)

K–12 STEM education encompasses the processes of critical thinking, analysis, and collaboration in which students integrate the processes and concepts in real world contexts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, fostering the development of STEM skills and competencies for college, career, and life.

The STEAM SymposiumScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (1) began incorporating Art into what was previously called the STEM Symposium with the 2017 California STEAM Symposium.

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Defining STEM and STEAM

STEM Education in California

To be successful, California’s efforts to improve schools and raise student achievement must include advancing our students’ understanding of STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Through STEM education, students learn to become problem solvers, innovators, creators, and collaborators and go on to fill the critical pipeline of engineers, scientists, and innovators so essential to the future of California and the nation.

STEM education inspires and prepares all of its students to seize the opportunities of the global society through innovation, inquiry, collaboration, and creative problem solving.

California also has education programs that incorporate science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM). For more information about STEAM education programs in California, please contact the following Divisions of the California Department of Education listed below:

Expanded Learning Division

STEM Disciplines

The Four STEM Disciplines Described

(Video) STEM explains the world! Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics

Science is the study of the natural world, including the laws of nature associated with physics, chemistry, and biology and the treatment or application of facts, principles, concepts, and conventions associated with these disciplines. Science is both a body of knowledge that has been accumulated over time and a process—scientific inquiry—that generates new knowledge. Knowledge from science informs the engineering design process. (NGSS for California Public Schools, K–12)

Technology, while not a discipline in the strictest sense, comprises the entire system of people and organizations, knowledge, processes, and devices that go into creating and operating technological artifacts, as well as the artifacts themselves. Throughout history, humans have created technology to satisfy their wants and needs. Much of modern technology is a product of science and engineering, and technological tools are used in both fields.

Engineering is both a body of knowledge—about the design and creation of human-made products—and a process for solving problems. This process is design under constraint. One constraint in engineering design is the laws of nature, or science. Other constraints include time, money, available materials, ergonomics, environmental regulations, manufacturability, and reparability. Engineering utilizes concepts from science and mathematics as well as technological tools.(Engineering Design in the NGSSScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (2)(PDF))

Mathematics is the study of patterns and relationships among quantities, numbers, and space. Unlike in science, where empirical evidence is sought to warrant or overthrow claims, claims in mathematics are warranted through logical arguments based on foundational assumptions. The local arguments themselves are part of mathematics along with the claims. As in science, knowledge in mathematics continues to grow, but unlike in science, knowledge in mathematics is not overturned, unless the foundational assumptions are transformed. Specific conceptual categories of K–12 mathematics include numbers and arithmetic, algebra, functions, geometry, and statistics and probability. Mathematics is used in science, engineering, and technology. (California Common Core State Standards (PDF))

Source: Adapted from the National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council, 2009.

Students learn not only in the classroom but also in the real world, and the importance of expanded, informal, and K–12 regular school day learning integration has been emphasized recently by the 2011 convening of the Committee on Integrated STEM Education by the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council (NRC), and the NRC convening, STEM is Everywhere. The most effective STEM education takes place where expanded, informal learning, and K–12 regular day instruction are integrated and the unique potential of each of these environments is fully leveraged for high-quality STEM education, often referred to as STEM ecosystems. (Change the Equation, 2012).

Computer Science

Computer Science (CS) Education Initiatives at the California Department of Education (CDE)

Recognizing the increasing importance of computer science education in California, former State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson was tasked with supporting two efforts to establish this content area in California. Torlakson convened an advisory committee to develop new state computer science content standards on September 25, 2017. The second initiative began in response to California Education Code Section 53313Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (3), which specifies that the Superintendent shall develop a computer science strategic implementation plan for submission to the Legislature, if the plan is adopted by the State Board of Education, on or before July 15, 2019. The implementation of computer science education, throughout kindergarten and grades 1 to 12, would allow for pupils to build their computational and critical thinking skills, enhance technological development, and prepare them for the 21st century.

CDE Programs and Initiatives

Computer Science Strategic Implementation Plan
Information and resources related to the Computer Science Strategic Implementation Plan.

California Computer Science Education Standards
Information on current computer science education resources, initiatives, and standards.

California Career Technical Education: Information and Communication Technologies (PDF)
The Career Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards have expanded to include the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector. Essential skills for those within the ICT sector, such as project management and effective communication, are described here.

(Video) Science, Technology, Engineering & Math

Digital Literacy: The Model School Library Standards for California Public Schools (PDF) provides standards for libraries across California public institutions regarding the accessibility and usage of print and digital resources for students.

CDE for CS Newsletter: To subscribe to this quarterly newsletter, send a blank email to


Alliance for California Computing Education for Students and Schools (ACCESS)Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (4)
ACCESS is a statewide network of computer scientists, K-12 teachers, professors from community colleges through universities, educational policy advocates, and related industry professionals who advocate for high-quality K-12 computer science education in California to ensure that it is accessible to all students.

Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (5)
Regarded as the world’s largest educational and scientific computing society, the Association for Computing Machinery provides resources that aim to advance computing as both a science and profession.

Code.orgScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (6) is a non-profit organization dedicated to enhancing access to and equity within computer science education for women and underrepresented communities. The website provides programming courses for grades K-12, resources for the Hour of Code, and advocacy materials.

Computer Science Education WeekScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (7)
Computer Science Education Week (CSEdWeek) is an annual program dedicated to inspiring K-12 students to participate in computer science.

Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA)Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (8)
The CSTA aims to empower, engage, and advocate for K-12 computer science educators worldwide. The CSTA has developed a core set of learning objectives designed to provide the foundation for a complete computer science curriculum at the K-12 implementation level.

CSPdWeekScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (9)
Computer Science Professional Development Week (CSPdWeek) makes high-quality professional development available for every teacher and counselor, regardless of where they work, what program they teach, or their district’s ability to fund their development.

CS UnpluggedScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (10)
CS Unplugged is a collection of free teaching tools for educators that teaches computer science through engaging games, puzzles, and activities.

K-12 Computer Science FrameworkScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (11)
Developed by organizations including, the CSTA, and the Association for Computing Machinery, the K-12 Computer Science Framework is designed to guide computer science education toward accessibility and participation for all students.

National Center for Women and Information Technology (NCWIT)Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (12)
The NCWIT is a non-profit community that aims to increase the meaningful participation of all women in the computing sector, particularly in terms of technological innovation and development. The NCWIT provides valuable resources for educators to utilize in diverse classrooms.

(Video) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Overview | Career Cluster / Industry Video Series

STEM Resources

California Department of Education Resources

Assessment – California Assessment of Student Performance and ProgressScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (13)
The California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress System (CAASPP) is a resource for educators to access test administration systems, training resources and materials, the latest CAASPP news, and important dates regarding administering the CAASPP tests.

Career Technical Education
A program of study that involves a multiyear sequence of courses that integrates core academic knowledge with technical and occupational knowledge to provide students with a pathway to postsecondary education and careers.

Education Technology
Provides assistance to schools and districts in integrating technology with teaching and learning.

Engaging Girls in STEM
Resources to support girls in STEM fields.

Engineering and Architecture (PDF)
Foundational information about the engineering and architecture sector pathways and occupations for students in California.

Environmental Education
Information on current environmental education resources, special events, and grant opportunities.

Resources and information for enhancing the content knowledge and teaching skills of classroom teachers and links to foundational documents which guide California's mathematics instruction.

Resources and information for enhancing the content knowledge and teaching skills of classroom teachers and links to foundational documents which guide California's science instruction.

  • California Science Framework
    The Science Framework for California Public Schools is the blueprint for reform of the science curriculum, instruction, professional preparation and development, and instructional materials in California.

Statewide Partner Resources

CA 4 NGSS ToolkitScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (14)
The California Alliance for Next Generation Science Standards facilitates collaboration among education, business, government, and community leaders to support effective and timely implementation of CA NGSS throughout California.

(Video) Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM)

California Mathematics CouncilScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (15)
The California Mathematics Council (CMC) is an organization that believes all students have the capacity to become mathematically competent and confident when provided a rigorous and challenging mathematical program supported by high expectations.

California Science Teachers AssociationScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (16)
The California Science Teachers Association's (CSTA) mission is to promote high quality science education.

California Science Teachers Association (CSTA) NGSS ResourcesScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (17)
The CSTA has developed a collection of resources and information for California science educators regarding the implementation of the state’s new science standards.

California State University and Better Together NGSS ResourcesScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (18) (PDF)
The California State University collaborated with the Better Together California Teachers’ Summit to create this very comprehensive list of resources for teachers and schools who are implementing the California State Standards and Frameworks.

The California STEM NetworkScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (19) is a Project of Children Now.
The STEM Network web pageScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (20) contains links to Regional California STEM Networks.

Contra County Office of Education STEAM InitiativeScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (21)
The Contra Costa Office of Education provides resources and a newsletter for STEAM.

National Resources

National Science and Technology CouncilScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (22)
This Council was established by Executive OrderScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (23)(PDF) on November 23, 1993 and is a cabinet-level council of advisers to the President on science and technology.

STEM Teaching ToolsScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (24)
The STEM Teaching Tools initiative is funded through federal research grants from the National Science Foundation.


Innovate: A Blueprint for STEM Education (PDF; 2014)
A blueprint for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics in California public education produced in 2014 by the STEM Task Force for Superintendent Tom Torlakson.

The Condition of STEMScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (25) (PDF; 2017)
The report will show achievement levels for students in each of the four areas of STEM on a national level.

(Video) Career Clusters - Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Disparities in STEM Employment by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: American Community Survey ReportsScience, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics (26) (PDF; 2013)
This report details the historical demographic composition of STEM occupations, followed by a detailed examination of current STEM employment by age and sex, presence of children in the household, and race and Hispanic origin based on the 2011 American Community Survey (ACS).


What do you do in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? ›

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics workers do scientific research in laboratories or the field. Others plan or design products and systems. Or, you might support scientists, mathematicians, or engineers as they do their work.

What is the U.S. ranked in STEM education? ›

ranking 25th out of a list of 37? countries in mathematics literacy and seventh out of 37 countries in science. The U.S. is behind countries like Japan, South Korea, Estonia, and the Netherlands regarding average mathematics and science literacy? scores.

What's considered a STEM major? ›

STEM degrees are college programs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. STEM degrees have seen increasing demand in jobs for the last decade. The term STEM is usually applied to loosely describe areas that directly relate to the hard sciences.

Why is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics important? ›

Importance of STEM

STEM in higher education teaches students to think critically, prepares them for careers and creates professionals that can work across scientific disciplines to solve challenging problems. STEM integrates multiple disciplines and trains students to use cross-disciplinary knowledge to solve problems.

What should I major in if I like science but not math? ›

Psychology is commonly thought of as the easiest of the science majors thanks to its relative lack of complex math, although psych majors can still expect to do a fair amount of statistical analysis on their way to a degree.

How much math is in engineering technology? ›

As an engineering major, you will almost certainly need to complete a sequence of calculus classes. Calculus I and II are essential. Beyond these calculus courses, either Calculus III or a course in multivariate or multivariable calculus is a common part of the curriculum.

What percent of Americans have a degree in STEM? ›

Of the 1.8 million bachelor's degrees awarded in 2015–16, about 331,000 (18 percent) were in STEM fields. The percentage of bachelor's degrees awarded that were in STEM fields varied by race/ethnicity.

What percentage of students go into STEM? ›

Only 20% of US high school graduates are prepared for college-level coursework in STEM majors. According to a White House report, 20% of high school grads are ready for the rigors of STEM majors.

What is the #1 public high school in America? ›

Niche, a rankings and review site, just released its rankings for the top high schools in the country for 2023. According to their list, the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics earned the number one spot for public schools.

What is a good GPA for a STEM major? ›

The average cumulative GPA of all undergraduate students on campus as of Fall 2021 is 3.33. Students in the above-listed STEM departments have a mean GPA of 3.39; higher than the campus-wide average.

What is the hardest STEM major? ›

Geological engineering is considered one of the hardest STEM majors because it combines elements of various disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, and engineering. It also requires a strong understanding of math and physics and the ability to analyze and interpret complex data sets.

What is the easiest science degree to get? ›

Health degrees, such as health administration or health science, are among the easiest science majors to receive. A health degree is more theoretical than many science degrees, and as a result, it often has less research and lab work.

Why is STEM so popular? ›

STEM Teaches Critical Thinking and Innovation

The focus on logical thought processes and problem-solving allows students to develop mental habits that will help them succeed in any field. STEM coursework challenges students to think critically and come up with their own solutions.

How is STEM used in everyday life? ›

STEM can help teach important life skills, especially budgeting and handling money. You can integrate mathematical skills into everyday life in a useful way. If you have younger children, look at your shopping list together.

What science degree has the least math? ›

Health science

Some of the courses in this field are physiology, medical pharmacology, physiology, and human anatomy. None of these courses require their undergraduates to take classes in mathematics. Health science graduates can become health administrators or teach in the health science faculties at universities.

What is the easiest science class in college? ›

Some of the easiest college science classes are what most liberal arts students take. They include psychology, biology, geology and computer science. Meanwhile, some of the hardest college science classes are those that involve lots of math and medicine, such as chemistry, physics and neuroscience.

What majors don t require calculus? ›

The following majors do not require Calculus
  • Anthropology.
  • Art and Art History.
  • Classics.
  • Communication.
  • English.
  • Environmental Studies.
  • Ethnic Studies.
  • History.

Can I be an engineer if I am bad at math? ›

Granted, a small percentage of graduate engineers will work in a R&D setting that will require high level math. However, the reality is that the vast majority of engineers that graduate will work in industry. If you look at what they do, day in and day out, you will find that they need to be very good at algebra.

Which engineering requires the most math? ›

Electrical engineering is the most math heavy of the engineering disciplines. You rely heavily on differential equations when dealing with advanced circuit analysis and electromagnetism is basically a physics and math course. In a close second is mechanical engineering, which uses dynamics a lot.

What is the hardest math in engineering? ›

Of all math classes engineers have to take, Differential Equations is the toughest. It requires both great memory and math skill.
A rough idea of the syllabus of the course is as follows:
  • Infinite Series.
  • Single and Multivariable Calculus.
  • Vector Calculus.
  • Matrices.
  • Differential Equations.
  • Laplace and Fourier Transforms.

What is the dropout rate for STEM majors? ›

For various reasons, a significant proportion of students who initially intend to study STEM fields abandon them several years later. A recent study found that a total of 56 percent of postsecondary students who declared STEM majors in their freshman year left these fields over the next 6 years (Chen 2009).

Are STEM degrees declining? ›

As STEM degrees continue to rise at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, degrees in arts and humanities are declining at an alarming rate. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of STEM majors in bachelor's, master's, and doctorate programs grew by 43 percent, while humanities majors declined by 0.4 percent.

Why are STEM majors hard? ›

Some reasons are: STEM faculty are among the toughest graders, even if they do not teach the classes that have the most demanding workloads. Grade inflation is less prevalent in the STEM majors than in any other majors on campus. Grading on a curve is more common in STEM classes than in non-STEM classes.

Does STEM require a lot of math? ›

STEM is extra heavy on science and math.

Unfortunately, being able to quickly master these two subjects is an integral part of doing well in STEM. Science and math are particularly important in STEM because technology and engineering are dependant on them.

Why do people leave STEM? ›

Many people are striving to understand the cause for the attrition, particularly for students of color and women. According to a White House report (PDF, 1.1MB), it seems that students leave STEM because of the uninviting atmosphere, difficult weed-out classes, and STEM courses that do not show their relevancy.

Why do STEM jobs pay more? ›

Some of these jobs, such as physicists and petroleum engineers, pay more because they employ a small number of people and require advanced technical skills, he adds.

What high school sends the most kids to Harvard? ›

Nationwide, these are the three top schools with the most graduates who registered at Harvard, Princeton or MIT from 2015-18: Thomas Jefferson High School in Alexandria, Virginia: 96; Stuyvesant High School in New York City: 94; and Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire: 87.

What is the richest high school in America? ›

Most expensive private high schools in US: IMG Academy makes the list.

Which state has best education? ›

1. Massachusetts. Massachusetts has the highest rank for public schools across the country. The quality of education is exceptional, and safety is also high.

What major requires the lowest GPA? ›

Science majors tend to have lower GPAs on average, with chemistry being the major with the lowest average GPA. Meanwhile, education majors earn the highest GPAs on average.

What will an F do to a 3.8 GPA? ›

The short answer is (surprisingly): No. If you have one “F” and all other grades in a 40-course program are “A” grades, your GPA will drop from a 4.0 to a 3.9. So, your existing GPA will be impacted, but will not be “ruined.”

What is the average GPA for Harvard? ›

The average high school GPA of admitted students at Harvard is around 4.2. 73% of students had a GPA of at least 4.0, indicating that admitted students typically mostly earned A grades in high school. If you're studying the IB, this translates to scoring mostly 7s and achieving a minimum score of at least 42.

What are the 3 hardest degrees? ›

Based on that, the toughest degrees are:
  • Foreign Languages.
  • Psychology.
  • Statistics.
  • Chemistry.
  • Physics.
  • Engineering.
  • Mathematics.
  • Chartered Accountancy.
Dec 16, 2022

What are the least stressful STEM majors? ›

According to the annual National Survey of Student Engagement, software engineering, computer science and astronomy majors enjoy the least stressful college experience, and spend the most time relaxing and socializing, including hanging out with friends, playing video games and going online.

What's the easiest major in college? ›

Business Major

Business isn't just one of the easiest college majors — it's also the most popular major. You'll study core topics like accounting, management, and organizational behavior. You can specialize your skills with upper-level courses in logistics, training and development, or entrepreneurship.

What science degrees are most in demand? ›

Top science fields in demand
  • Biology.
  • Biomedical engineer and technology.
  • Chemistry.
  • Computer and software engineering.
  • Geology and petroleum technology.
  • Medical sciences.
  • Nuclear engineering and technology.
  • Psychology.
Jan 17, 2023

Which majors study the least? ›

The 16 Easiest College Majors – 2023 Rankings
  • Psychology.
  • Criminal Justice.
  • English.
  • Education.
  • Religious Studies.
  • Social Work.
  • Sociology.
  • Communications.
Nov 1, 2022

What is the easiest 4 year degree to get? ›

On average, bachelor of business administration majors spend 42 hours studying for both the core courses and electives. Based on the average GPA, this could be the easiest bachelor degree to get. Business is one of the majors that produce the most number of graduates and one of the easy majors that pay well.

What is a STEM for a girl? ›

Stems are generally women who love women. They tend to use she/her pronouns in communication and most often identify as women. That said, stem includes a variety of gender identities on the spectrum. A transgender or gender-fluid person, as well as non-binary people, can express themselves as a stem.

Why is STEM important for girls? ›

Girls Can Develop Better Problem-solving Skills

STEM involves thinking critically, logically, and analytically. It also requires approaching problems persistently and creatively. Thus, STEM subjects and activities can teach girls how to think like a scientist.

Why do schools focus on STEM? ›

STEM-based education teaches children more than science and mathematics concepts. The focus on hands-on learning with real-world applications helps develop a variety of skill sets, including creativity and 21st-century skills.

What are the disadvantages of STEM education? ›

The cons of teaching STEM
  • STEM learning is not about pushing other disciplines to the back burner. It's about an integrated, well-rounded curriculum.
  • STEM is not a program that can wait until the last minute. ...
  • STEM is not about only helping certain students succeed.
Jan 4, 2023

What is the benefit of STEM degree in USA? ›

STEM students will develop important transferable skills like problem-solving, research and analysis, as well as critical thinking. Here are a few universities we recommend for STEM studies: The University of Texas at Arlington, the US. King's College London, the UK.

What are 4 two main functions of the STEM? ›

The primary functions of the stem are to support the leaves; to conduct water and minerals to the leaves, where they can be converted into usable products by photosynthesis; and to transport these products from the leaves to other parts of the plant, including the roots.

What are 5 main functions of a STEM? ›

(i) It supports branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. (ii) It transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and other parts of plants. (iii) It transports food from leaves to different parts of the plant. (iv) It holds the plant upright.

Where does STEM work? ›

STEM majors can pursue an array of paths, with many choosing to work for private businesses, nonprofits, labs, universities, and the military.

What is a STEM example? ›

That is, a stem is that part of a word that inflectional affixes attach to. For example, the stem of the verb wait is wait: it is the part that is common to all its inflected variants. wait (infinitive) wait (imperative)

What do people in the STEM career cluster do? ›

Careers in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) cluster involve solving a variety of problems through research and design. Learn more about these jobs from professionals in the field.

What is the role of science engineering and technology? ›

Science refers to understanding and studying phenomena in the natural world, while engineering and technology are applications of science to create the human-made world. Engineering is defined as a systematic and iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.

What is STEM for kids? ›

STEM refers to a set of interlinked subjects that are important foundational concepts for kids and adults in today's world. STEM is an educational curriculum that focuses heavily on the subjects of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Why are STEM jobs good? ›

No job is 100% secure; however, because of growing demand, professionals working in STEM fields are less likely to be unemployed than their non-STEM counterparts. This fact can mitigate hesitation to take out student loans for an undergraduate or master's degree.

Why are STEM careers in high demand? ›

With high salaries, growing industries, and low barriers to entry, starting a STEM job just makes sense.

Why is STEM a good career? ›

STEM is an acronym for science, technology, engineering, and math. These four fields share an emphasis on innovation, problem-solving, and critical thinking. And together they make up a popular and fast-growing industry. Most STEM workers use computers and other technology in their day-to-day jobs.

What is the difference between engineering science and engineering technology? ›

Most notably, a Bachelor of Science in Engineering emphasizes theories and advanced concepts, while an Engineering Technology degree emphasizes hands-on application and implementation.

What is the difference between science technology and engineering? ›

Science is a body of natural explanations for apparent phenomena. Technology is tools, including methods, that assist people in accomplishing tasks. Engineering is the process of studying and developing technology.

What is the difference between engineering and technology? ›

Definitions of Engineering and Technology

Engineering is defined as a systematic and iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants. Technology is defined as any modification of the natural or designed world developed to fulfill human needs or desires.

How is STEM taught? ›

STEM education is an experiential learning pedagogy in which the application of knowledge and skills are integrated through in-context projects or problems focused on learning outcomes tied to the development of important college and career readiness proficiencies.

What is STEM for dummies? ›

STEM is an abbreviation for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The term is used to describe both education and careers in those fields. STEM was first introduced in 2001 by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Why is STEM important in schools? ›

STEM-based education teaches children more than science and mathematics concepts. The focus on hands-on learning with real-world applications helps develop a variety of skill sets, including creativity and 21st-century skills.

What are the 3 most important functions of a STEM? ›

The primary functions of the stem are to support the leaves; to conduct water and minerals to the leaves, where they can be converted into usable products by photosynthesis; and to transport these products from the leaves to other parts of the plant, including the roots.

What are 3 main functions of a STEM? ›

It is responsible for carrying minerals, water, and glucose to different parts of the plant. When the stems are green, they may contain chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis. The stems can also be modified for food storage (tubers) and vegetative propagation (bear buds) as seen in potatoes.


1. "Robotics is STEM" (Science Technology Engineering Math)
2. Applying Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics at the Bureau
(FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation)
3. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Careers | Career Cluster / Industry Video Series
4. Science! Technology! Engineering! Arts! Mathematics!
(CBS Philadelphia)
5. State of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Address
(The Obama White House)
6. GHC | Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Program Information
(Granada Hills Charter)


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