From François to French: The Birth and Evolution of the French Language (2023)


The French language, a Romance language, has its roots in the oral and popular forms of Latin, evolving since the time of Roman Gaul. The earliest written document in French, the Oaths of Strasbourg in 842, marked an alliance between Charles the Bald and Louis the Germanic in both Romance and Germanic languages.

Medieval Diversity: Dialects and Evolution

During the Middle Ages, French comprised numerous dialects, notably the Oïl dialects in the North and the Occitan dialects in the South. With the consolidation of the Capetian monarchy, the Oïl dialect gradually gained prominence. However, France remained bilingual, with Latin serving as the language of the Church, scholars, and education.

French as the Language of the Nation

The widespread use of French, particularly a version understandable to all, correlated with the advancements in royal administration and justice. The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts in 1539 played a pivotal role by mandating clear and unambiguous legal language in French, emphasizing its role in public life.

The Role of the Academy and Linguistic Excellence

The establishment of the Academy française in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu aimed to provide the kingdom's unity with a language and style that symbolize and cement it. The Academy's role in setting rules for the French language, ensuring its purity and eloquence, remained crucial.

French Influence Beyond Borders

In the 17th and 18th centuries, French extended beyond national boundaries. It became the language of aristocracy, cultivated individuals, and even diplomatic relations in Northern Europe, Germany, Poland, Russia, surpassing France's political and economic influence.

Orthographic Transformations and Reforms

Orthography has undergone significant transformations, shaped by both natural evolution and interventions from the Academy, lexicographers, and grammarians. The Academy's careful balance between established usage, etymology, pronunciation, and educational practices has contributed to the French language's consistency.

Contemporary Linguistic Policies

Recognizing the threat of English dominance, French authorities implemented measures to regulate the language. Since 1972, terminology and neology commissions have recommended or created French terms to replace foreign ones. The 1994 Toubon Law strengthened language requirements in various domains, including audiovisual, commerce, and the workplace.

Feminization Debate

The 1984 creation of a commission on terminology related to women's activities led to debates on feminizing job titles. The Academy, expressing reservations, highlighted linguistic nuances, emphasizing the potential unintended consequences and discrimination inherent in forced linguistic changes.

Current Language Policies

Recent legislative measures, such as the 1994 Toubon Law and subsequent decrees, solidify French as the language of the Republic. Efforts to maintain linguistic integrity continue, with ongoing debates about feminization and the balance between linguistic evolution and regulatory intervention.


The journey of the French language from its medieval dialectical roots to a global influence reflects not only linguistic evolution but also the intricate interplay between language, politics, and culture. The ongoing efforts to preserve and regulate French demonstrate its enduring significance on the global stage.


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